ls command with 25 practical examples – RHEL7

ls command with 25 practical examples – RHEL7

ls command is used to list information about the FILEs (the current directory by default).  Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor –sort is specified. ls command with 25 practical examples

Syntax : ls [options] arguments

1. Listing current directory content

we can list out all files and directories in current path using ‘ls’ without hidden directories

[root@TechTutorial ~]# ls
a  anaconda-ks.cfg  arkitsample.txt  ARKIT.txt  b  c  dir1  dir2  initial-setup-ks.cfg  techtutorial

2. Listing including hidden files

default ls command will not list hidden objects, in order to see the hidden objects have to use option ‘-a’ ls command with 25 practical examples

[root@TechTutorial ~]# ls -a
.   anaconda-ks.cfg  b              .bash_profile  .cache   .dbus  initial-setup-ks.cfg  techtutorial
..  arkitsample.txt  .bash_history  .bashrc        .config  dir1   .lesshst              .viminfo
a   ARKIT.txt        .bash_logout   c              .cshrc   dir2   .tcshrc

3. Long list ( it display detailed info)

when you use ‘ls’ command it will list files & directories without there permission, owner, group and other details, ‘-l’ option will display owner, group, others, Size and time.

below is the example

[root@TechTutorial ~]# ls -l
total 24
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 Jan 11 15:47 a
-rw-------. 1 root ravi 1765 Jan  8 22:47 anaconda-ks.cfg
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    2 Jan 10 17:45 arkitsample.txt
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    3 Jan 10 17:45 ARKIT.txt
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 Jan 11 15:47 b
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 Jan 11 15:47 c
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root   29 Jan 10 17:20 dir1
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root    6 Jan 10 17:05 dir2
-rw-r--r--. 1 root ravi 1813 Jan  8 23:05 initial-setup-ks.cfg
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 5362 Jan 10 17:44 techtutorial

4. List files & directories separated by comma

if there is a requirement that we have to list all the files and directories separated by comma

here is the example ls command with 25 practical examples

[root@TechTutorial ~]# ls -m
a, anaconda-ks.cfg, arkitsample.txt, ARKIT.txt, b, c, dir1, dir2, initial-setup-ks.cfg, techtutorial

5. List remote directory files & directories with & without color

in order to list remote directory content with color and without color below is the example

with color

[root@TechTutorial ~]# ls --color=always
a  anaconda-ks.cfg  arkitsample.txt  ARKIT.txt  b  c  dir1  dir2  initial-setup-ks.cfg  techtutorial

without color, here all the files and directories will display in block color

[root@TechTutorial ~]# ls --color=never
a  anaconda-ks.cfg  arkitsample.txt  ARKIT.txt  b  c  dir1  dir2  initial-setup-ks.cfg  techtutorial

6. List only directory using option ‘-d’

ls command along with option ‘-d’ will display only directory path without its content

[root@TechTutorial ~]# ls -d /etc/
/etc/

7. List files & directories detailed time stamp

as we can see above -l option which will give long output, time stamp is not detailed, by following below example it will give time stamp details including time zone and seconds

[root@TechTutorial ~]# ls -l --time-style=full-iso
total 24
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 2016-01-11 15:47:47.042849437 +0530 a
-rw-------. 1 root ravi 1765 2016-01-08 22:47:13.626999586 +0530 anaconda-ks.cfg
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    2 2016-01-10 17:45:26.794985205 +0530 arkitsample.txt
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    3 2016-01-10 17:45:34.069985006 +0530 ARKIT.txt
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 2016-01-11 15:47:47.043849437 +0530 b
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 2016-01-11 15:47:47.043849437 +0530 c
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root   29 2016-01-10 17:20:06.963026703 +0530 dir1
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root    6 2016-01-10 17:05:21.261050887 +0530 dir2
-rw-r--r--. 1 root ravi 1813 2016-01-08 23:05:38.464011991 +0530 initial-setup-ks.cfg
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 5362 2016-01-10 17:44:46.245986312 +0530 techtutorial

8. Display files and directories its time stamp as “YY-MM-DD HH:MM”

No need to think a lot to list files and directories with above time stamp format below is the example

[root@TechTutorial ~]# ls -l --time-style long-iso
total 24
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 2016-01-11 15:47 a
-rw-------. 1 root ravi 1765 2016-01-08 22:47 anaconda-ks.cfg
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    2 2016-01-10 17:45 arkitsample.txt
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    3 2016-01-10 17:45 ARKIT.txt
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 2016-01-11 15:47 b
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 2016-01-11 15:47 c
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root   29 2016-01-10 17:20 dir1
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root    6 2016-01-10 17:05 dir2
-rw-r--r--. 1 root ravi 1813 2016-01-08 23:05 initial-setup-ks.cfg
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 5362 2016-01-10 17:44 techtutorial

9. List objects its time stamp as “MM-DD HH:MM”

List all files & directories with date format YY-MM-DD HH:MM

[root@TechTutorial ~]# ls -l --time-style iso
total 24
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 01-11 15:47 a
-rw-------. 1 root ravi 1765 01-08 22:47 anaconda-ks.cfg
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    2 01-10 17:45 arkitsample.txt
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    3 01-10 17:45 ARKIT.txt
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 01-11 15:47 b
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 01-11 15:47 c
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root   29 01-10 17:20 dir1
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root    6 01-10 17:05 dir2
-rw-r--r--. 1 root ravi 1813 01-08 23:05 initial-setup-ks.cfg
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 5362 01-10 17:44 techtutorial

10. List files & directories with specified time stamp format

Here in this option we can mention date command options to customize time stamp as required

below is the example

[root@TechTutorial ~]# ls -l --time-style="+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"
total 24
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 2016-01-11 15:47:47 a
-rw-------. 1 root ravi 1765 2016-01-08 22:47:13 anaconda-ks.cfg
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    2 2016-01-10 17:45:26 arkitsample.txt
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    3 2016-01-10 17:45:34 ARKIT.txt
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 2016-01-11 15:47:47 b
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 2016-01-11 15:47:47 c
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root   29 2016-01-10 17:20:06 dir1
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root    6 2016-01-10 17:05:21 dir2
-rw-r--r--. 1 root ravi 1813 2016-01-08 23:05:38 initial-setup-ks.cfg
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 5362 2016-01-10 17:44:46 techtutorial

11. List Only Group Name without User name (Owner)

ls command will list only group name without user name (Owner name) in long list lets see the example

[root@TechTutorial ~]# ls -lg
total 24
-rw-r--r--. 1 root    0 Jan 11 15:47 a
-rw-------. 1 ravi 1765 Jan  8 22:47 anaconda-ks.cfg
-rw-r--r--. 1 root    2 Jan 10 17:45 arkitsample.txt
-rw-r--r--. 1 root    3 Jan 10 17:45 ARKIT.txt
-rw-r--r--. 1 root    0 Jan 11 15:47 b
-rw-r--r--. 1 root    0 Jan 11 15:47 c
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root   29 Jan 10 17:20 dir1
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root    6 Jan 10 17:05 dir2
-rw-r--r--. 1 ravi 1813 Jan  8 23:05 initial-setup-ks.cfg
-rw-r--r--. 1 root 5362 Jan 10 17:44 techtutorial

12. List Only Owner Name without Group Name

ls command will list only user name (owner name) excluding group details we have to use ‘-G’ option along with option ‘-l’

[root@TechTutorial ~]# ls -lG
total 24
-rw-r--r--. 1 root    0 Jan 11 15:47 a
-rw-------. 1 root 1765 Jan  8 22:47 anaconda-ks.cfg
-rw-r--r--. 1 root    2 Jan 10 17:45 arkitsample.txt
-rw-r--r--. 1 root    3 Jan 10 17:45 ARKIT.txt
-rw-r--r--. 1 root    0 Jan 11 15:47 b
-rw-r--r--. 1 root    0 Jan 11 15:47 c
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root   29 Jan 10 17:20 dir1
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root    6 Jan 10 17:05 dir2
-rw-r--r--. 1 root 1813 Jan  8 23:05 initial-setup-ks.cfg
-rw-r--r--. 1 root 5362 Jan 10 17:44 techtutorial

13. List files & directories in human readable format

ls command will give you a nice human readable format of ls command output use option ‘-lh’

[root@TechTutorial ~]# ls -lh
total 24K
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 Jan 11 15:47 a
-rw-------. 1 root ravi 1.8K Jan  8 22:47 anaconda-ks.cfg
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    2 Jan 10 17:45 arkitsample.txt
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    3 Jan 10 17:45 ARKIT.txt
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 Jan 11 15:47 b
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 Jan 11 15:47 c
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root   29 Jan 10 17:20 dir1
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root    6 Jan 10 17:05 dir2
-rw-r--r--. 1 root ravi 1.8K Jan  8 23:05 initial-setup-ks.cfg
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 5.3K Jan 10 17:44 techtutorial

14. List inode number of files and directories

we can also list the inode numbers of files and directories using option ‘-i’

[root@TechTutorial ~]# ls -i
71153561 a                71153570 arkitsample.txt  71153562 b  37492119 dir1  71163580 initial-setup-ks.cfg
71142770 anaconda-ks.cfg  71153571 ARKIT.txt        71153568 c  71153564 dir2  71153567 techtutorial

15. List only directories using -d option

ls command will only list directories without files in order to do that we have to use #ls -d */ command.

[root@TechTutorial ~]# ls -d */
dir1/  dir2/

16. List files & directories, directories should append with / (slash)

in order to append the directories with / ( slash ) we have to use option ‘-p’. if you observe below example output all the directories ended with / ls command with 25 practical examples

[root@TechTutorial ~]# ls -p
a  anaconda-ks.cfg  arkitsample.txt  ARKIT.txt  b  c  dir1/  dir2/  initial-setup-ks.cfg  techtutorial

17. Print files & directory names in quoted format

As we can list the files and directories using ls command, file names will be printed as quoted format using -Q option

[root@TechTutorial ~]# ls -lQ
total 24
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 Jan 11 15:47 "a"
-rw-------. 1 root ravi 1765 Jan  8 22:47 "anaconda-ks.cfg"
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    2 Jan 10 17:45 "arkitsample.txt"
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    3 Jan 10 17:45 "ARKIT.txt"
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 Jan 11 15:47 "b"
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 Jan 11 15:47 "c"
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root   29 Jan 10 17:20 "dir1"
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root    6 Jan 10 17:05 "dir2"
-rw-r--r--. 1 root ravi 1813 Jan  8 23:05 "initial-setup-ks.cfg"
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 5362 Jan 10 17:44 "techtutorial"

[root@TechTutorial ~]# ls -Q
"a"  "anaconda-ks.cfg"  "arkitsample.txt"  "ARKIT.txt"  "b"  "c"  "dir1"  "dir2"  "initial-setup-ks.cfg"  "techtutorial"

18. Sort the list by time stamp

we can sort the files and directories by its time, this option will list old time stamp below newer up

[root@TechTutorial ~]# ls -lt
total 24
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 Jan 11 15:47 b
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 Jan 11 15:47 c
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 Jan 11 15:47 a
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    3 Jan 10 17:45 ARKIT.txt
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    2 Jan 10 17:45 arkitsample.txt
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 5362 Jan 10 17:44 techtutorial
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root   29 Jan 10 17:20 dir1
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root    6 Jan 10 17:05 dir2
-rw-r--r--. 1 root ravi 1813 Jan  8 23:05 initial-setup-ks.cfg
-rw-------. 1 root ravi 1765 Jan  8 22:47 anaconda-ks.cfg

19. Print in reverse

As example 18 is showing output old files below and newer files up. using ‘-r’ option print in reverse way, old first and new last

[root@TechTutorial ~]# ls -ltr
total 24
-rw-------. 1 root ravi 1765 Jan  8 22:47 anaconda-ks.cfg
-rw-r--r--. 1 root ravi 1813 Jan  8 23:05 initial-setup-ks.cfg
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root    6 Jan 10 17:05 dir2
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root   29 Jan 10 17:20 dir1
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 5362 Jan 10 17:44 techtutorial
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    2 Jan 10 17:45 arkitsample.txt
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    3 Jan 10 17:45 ARKIT.txt
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 Jan 11 15:47 a
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 Jan 11 15:47 c
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 Jan 11 15:47 b

20. List recursively

using option ‘-R’ we can list files and directories in recursively

[root@TechTutorial ~]# ls -R
.:
a  anaconda-ks.cfg  arkitsample.txt  ARKIT.txt  b  c  dir1  dir2  initial-setup-ks.cfg  techtutorial

./dir1:
Ravi  Test1

./dir1/Ravi:
Kumar

./dir1/Ravi/Kumar:
Tech

./dir1/Ravi/Kumar/Tech:
TUtorial

./dir1/Ravi/Kumar/Tech/TUtorial:

./dir2:

21. print the allocated size of each file, in blocks

using option ‘-S’ we can sort by file size

[root@TechTutorial ~]# ls -lS
total 24
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 5362 Jan 10 17:44 techtutorial
-rw-r--r--. 1 root ravi 1813 Jan  8 23:05 initial-setup-ks.cfg
-rw-------. 1 root ravi 1765 Jan  8 22:47 anaconda-ks.cfg
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root   29 Jan 10 17:20 dir1
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root    6 Jan 10 17:05 dir2
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    3 Jan 10 17:45 ARKIT.txt
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    2 Jan 10 17:45 arkitsample.txt
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 Jan 11 15:47 a
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 Jan 11 15:47 b
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 Jan 11 15:47 c

22. sort by alphabetical order

in order to print in alphabetical order we have to use -X option ls command with 25 practical examples

[root@TechTutorial ~]# ls -lX
total 24
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 Jan 11 15:47 a
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 Jan 11 15:47 b
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    0 Jan 11 15:47 c
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root   29 Jan 10 17:20 dir1
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root    6 Jan 10 17:05 dir2
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 5362 Jan 10 17:44 techtutorial
-rw-------. 1 root ravi 1765 Jan  8 22:47 anaconda-ks.cfg
-rw-r--r--. 1 root ravi 1813 Jan  8 23:05 initial-setup-ks.cfg
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    2 Jan 10 17:45 arkitsample.txt
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root    3 Jan 10 17:45 ARKIT.txt

23. List with tab space

ls command default will display file space as 8 COLS, using -T we can print with more tab space in between files

[root@TechTutorial ~]# ls
a  anaconda-ks.cfg  arkitsample.txt  ARKIT.txt  b  c  dir1  dir2  initial-setup-ks.cfg  techtutorial
[root@TechTutorial ~]# ls -T1
a        anaconda-ks.cfg         arkitsample.txt         ARKIT.txt       b       c       dir1    dir2    initial-setup-ks.cfg    techtutorial

24. Print file names in one row

using option -1 (numeric number 1) ls command with 25 practical examples

[root@TechTutorial ~]# ls -1
a
anaconda-ks.cfg
arkitsample.txt
ARKIT.txt
b
c
dir1
dir2
initial-setup-ks.cfg
techtutorial

25. Lets know the ls command version details and author details

[root@TechTutorial ~]# ls --version
ls (GNU coreutils) 8.22
Copyright (C) 2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.

Its all above ls command. ls command with 25 practical examples

Conclusion:

ls command is used to list the files and directory (default as current directory) also remote directory path. ls command with 25 practical examples

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