Linux Mail command Send email from Command Line utility
Sending email from Linux command line would he more helpful when we are trying to automate from programs / applications. Linux Mail command will help us in send email command line utility. Let’s see in detailed information about mail utility.
Linux Mail command is dependent on sendmail / postfix email services, because without any mail services email can’t be routed.
Advantages Linux Mail Command Line utility
- Easy to Automate Tasks
- Complex tasks can also be achieved along with programs
- Send emails in bulk can be possible
Install mail utilities
#yum install mailx* $apt-get install mailutils
Sending simple Email message from Command line
To send an email from command line simply use Linux mail command as mentioned below
[root@ArkitServer ~]# mail -s "Testing Message" email@example.com <<< "Testing Email" Or [root@ArkitServer ~]# echo "Testing Email" | mail -s "Testing Message" firstname.lastname@example.org
Here -s to provide email subject
File content as Email body
Now situation is file has content i would like to send an file content as email body using mail command. Below command send’s email and email body as /etc/passwd content
[root@ArkitServer ~]# mail -s "Email Subject" email@example.com < /etc/passwd
[root@localhost ~]# cat anaconda-ks.cfg | mail -s "Kickstart content" firstname.lastname@example.org
Specify CC (Carbon Copy) and BCC (Blind Copy) recipients
A simple example to send CC and BCC
-c Email Address
-b Email Address
[root@localhost ~]# echo "Email Body" | mail -s "Testing Email" email@example.com -c firstname.lastname@example.org -b email@example.com
Custom From Address
specify from custom email address. When you send an email from command it will take logged in user@serverName but we can specify required address
[root@localhost ~]# echo "Email Body Message" | mail -s "subject" firstname.lastname@example.org -r email@example.com
Sending Email to multiple recipients
We can send email to multiple recipients using single mail command. specify multiple email addresses using comma separated.
[root@localhost ~]# mail -s "Testing Email subject" firstname.lastname@example.org,email@example.com < anaconda-ks.cfg
Send attachment to email
Linux mail command will not allow sending email attachments directly we required to use uuencode command to send attachment
yum install sharutils* uuencode file.txt | mail -s "Email As Attachment" firstname.lastname@example.org < EmailBody.txt
Linux command to read email in Inbox
[root@localhost ~]# mail Heirloom Mail version 12.5 7/5/10. Type ? for help. "/var/spool/mail/root": 1 message 1 new >N 1 root Fri Mar 17 21:40 18/630 "Testing Email" & 1 Message 1: From email@example.com Fri Mar 17 21:40:03 2017 Return-Path: <firstname.lastname@example.org> X-Original-To: root@localhost Delivered-To: email@example.com Date: Fri, 17 Mar 2017 21:40:03 +0530 To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Testing Email User-Agent: Heirloom mailx 12.5 7/5/10 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii From: email@example.com (root) Status: R Testing Body & q Held 1 message in /var/spool/mail/root
Mail command controls to manage mailbox
- :n All new messages.
- 😮 All old messages (any not in state read or new).
- :u All unread messages.
- :d All deleted messages (for the undelete command).
- :r All read messages.
- :f All `flagged’ messages.
- :a All answered messages (cf. the markanswered variable).
- :t All messages marked as draft.
- :k All `killed’ messages.
- :j All messages classified as junk.
- . The current message.
- , That is the message with the Message-ID given in the `In-Reply-To:’
- – The next previous undeleted message, or the next previous deleted message for the undelete command. In sorted/threaded mode, the next previous such message in the sorted/threaded order.
- + The next undeleted message, or the next deleted message for the undelete command. In sorted/threaded mode, the next such message in the sorted/threaded order.
- ^ The first undeleted message, or the first deleted message for the undelete command. In sorted/threaded mode, the first such message in the sorted/threaded order.
- $ In sorted/threaded mode
Linux Mail Command is very useful to integrate with shell scripts to automate many tasks.